With our team of collaborating researchers from multiple scientific disciplines, GUTS will be designed to enforce sample diversity in social neuroscience research. We use a set of large longitudinal designs in three societal contexts: education, social networks, and societal norms.

For the aims of this program, longitudinal measurements are necessary to understand within-individual change (see Figure 1), and the direction of influence to and from self-regulation as measured in longitudinal designs. Moreover, by employing a Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) approach, we maximize the alignment of our research with values and needs in society (see also work packages 5 and 6 for a more detailed explanation), which is crucial given the strong societal focus of GUTS.

Figure 1. Cohort characteristics. Data for four cohorts (A-D) will be acquired at different sites. Across all cohorts, we will measure the same functional neural (delay of gratification for self and others), social connections (ego-centered social networks), behavioral (self-regulation and contributions to society) and biological (brain structure, polygenetic risk scores) variables. Each cohort additionally targets a specific focus area (social learning, learning in school context, vicarious gains and social connection, and empathy) in the specific population (the Rotterdam Test & Replication Cohort, the Amsterdam Test & Replication Cohort, the Social Connections Cohort, and the Antisocial Cohort).